Book Name: Human Resource Management. Book sub-title: 19th Thoroughly Revised Edition Author/s name/s: Gupta C.B.. Publisher Name: Sultan. Textbook of Human Resource Management - Free ebook download as PDF File ( .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book Download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd Late Dr. C.B. MAMORIA A. Das Gupta has givan the level-wise. HRM - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt), PDF File .pdf), Text Dr. C.B. Gupta – Sultan Chand & Sons Human Resource Management – S.S.
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Three Delphi iterations with 19 participants were completed. Taken together, these produced 33 recommendations for developing health-related rehabilitation services. Conclusion This research can contribute to implementing the WHO guidelines on the interaction between the health sector and CBR, particularly in the context of the Framework for Action for Strengthening Health Systems, in which human resources is one of six components.
Realist syntheses can provide policy makers with detailed and practical information regarding complex health interventions, which may be valuable when planning and implementing programmes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article However, the World Report on Disability highlighted a lack of knowledge and prioritisation of how to serve the needs and provide opportunities for people with disabilities [ 2 ].
However, persons with disabilities worldwide still face a myriad of barriers to high-quality and sustained service provision and access, and as noted by the World Report one of the critical components of this is provision of the skilled human resources required to implement the health-related aspects of the CBR guidelines. Within the domain of health, there is a global deficit of over four million trained health workers with low-income countries largely affected [ 4 , 5 ]; however, this is not specifically for the provision of services for people with disabilities [ 6 ].
Where salient reviews of CBR programmes do exist, for instance in Malawi [ 8 ], Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda [ 9 ], these indicate that shortages of human resources and knowledge is a major constraint in implementation. A recent systematic review of the effectiveness of alternative cadres in CBR [ 10 ] highlighted the need for systematic research on the training, performance, development and impact of the workforce engaged in rehabilitation activities in addition to a coordinated global response [ 11 ].
Scientific approaches to job specification, including evidence-based empirical approaches to articulating the core competencies to perform specific tasks, or a family of tasks, now exist.
By specifying the core competencies required to do a job successfully and effectively, service systems are able to select, train, and appraise personnel more effectively [ 13 ]. The paucity of research on the rehabilitation workforce is likely to constrain our ability to follow-through and deliver on the initiatives described above.
Shortages of appropriately trained and deployed human resources for rehabilitation constitute a serious strategic bottleneck for the development of institution and community-based services, despite multiple proposals seeking to improve such services [ 11 , 14 — 17 ]. There is much that can be learned from other areas of human resources for health including, for instance, health workforce planning [ 18 ], inequalities [ 19 ], health workforce training, motivation, supervision and retention [ 20 , 21 ], mid-level cadres in maternal health [ 22 , 23 ], and in primary care [ 24 ].
Theoretically, recruitment process is said to end with the receipt of applications, in practice the activity extends to the screening of applications so as to eliminate those who are not qualified for the job. Recruitment refers to the process of receipt of applications from job seekers.
In reality, the term is used to describe the entire process of employee hiring. These are recruitment boards for railways, banks and other organization. Q1 Explain in detail the general purpose of recruitment? Recruitment also manages the costs in time and money for hiring employees. Recruitment enables the organization to meet social and legal obligations. By sourcing, developing and recruiting candidates, recruitment facilitates the organization's hiring process.
The recruitment process is one of the most fundamental value added HR Processes. The recruitment is especially critical for managers in the organization. The managers use the recruitment process intensively, and satisfaction with Human Resources is mostly about the satisfaction with the recruitment process.
The recruitment process is sensitive to the external and internal changes, and it can be used as the best indicator for the future HR trends. Main Recruitment Process Goals The recruitment process is designed to staff the organization with the new employees, and it uses many different recruitment sources to attract the right talent in the defined quality and within a defined time.
HR has to use the other outcomes from the recruitment process as it is the source of valuable information. Finding the best talents on the job market This is the most important goal of the recruitment process.
The HR Recruiters are paid for delivering the candidates to managers, who make the final decision about hiring a new employee. The organizations are fighting for the best talents in the job market.
HR Recruiters have to develop the competitive approaches to make the attractive job offers. The candidates select the organization, which is recognized for being modern and competitive.
The job adverts and job offers have to reflect this. The managers love to hire the best employees available on the job market. They love to interview motivated job candidates. The role of HR is to describe the real need to the manager.
Many times, the best job candidate is not the appropriate job candidate. Recruitment Sources Management The recruitment sources management is an extremely significant goal of the recruitment process.
The recruitment sources deliver the candidates for the selection procedure in the organization. The better the candidates are; the higher quality job candidates can be hired. The proper management of the recruitment sources has a significant impact on the competitive advantage of the organization. The better employees do not have to be more expensive, but the organization has to manage the recruitment sources to attract the high quality job candidates.
Building the Strong Internal Recruitment Process The external recruitment is not the only goal of the recruitment process. Building the strong internal recruitment helps the organization to keep the best talents in the organization. The employees have a chance to apply for a new job position, and they can change their career path.
The internal recruitment is a difficult HR topic as the managers have to allow their best employees to take a new role within the organization.
The role of Human Resources is in allowing the best employees to rotate and in supporting the managers in developing the successors. The large organization cannot hire just the experts; they have to attract many university graduates.
The graduates do select the employer by the strength of the brand name on the job market and offered opportunities in the organization. The HR has to design the recruitment activities, which support the name of the employer on the job market. The organization has to build a positive brand name, and it has to promote the job opportunities and excellent career paths. Factors Governing Recruitment: Given its key role and external visibility, recruitment isnaturally subject to influence of several factors.
These include external andinternal forces. External Forces: Of particular importance is the supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market. If the demand for a particular skill ishigh relative to the supply, an extraordinary recruiting effort may be needed.
The number of unsolicited applicantsis usually greater, and the increased size of the labour pool provides betteropportunities for attracting qualified applicants. On the other hand, as theunemployment rates drops recruiting efforts must be increased and newsources explored. Labour-market conditions in a local area are of primary importance inrecruiting for most non-managerial, supervisory and middle-mgt. However, so far as recruitment for executive and professional positions areconcerned conditions of all India market are important.
Another external factor is political and legal considerations. Often, it is not the money that is important. It is theperception of the job seekers about the company that matters in attractingqualified prospective employees. Internal Factors: There are certain internal forces which deserveconsideration while recruiting personnel. One such internal factor is the recruiting policy of the organization. Most organizations have a policy onrecruiting internally from own employees or externally from outside theorganization.
Generally, the policy is to prefer internal sourcing, as own employees know the company well and can recommend candidates who fitthe organizations culture. Another related policy is to have temporary and part-time employees. An organization hiring temporary and part-time employees is in a less advantageous position in attracting sufficient applications.
MNCs operating in our country prefer local citizens as they can understand local languages, customs and business practices well. A major internal factor that can determine the success of therecruiting programme is whether or not the company engages in HRP.
Effective HRP greatly facilitates the recruiting efforts. Size is another internal factor having its influence on the recruitmentprocess. An organization with one hundred thousand employee will findrecruiting less problematic than an organization with just one hundredemployees.
Cost of recruiting is yet another internal factor that has to beconsidered. Recruiting cost are calculated per new higher and fig. Recruiters must, therefore, operate withinbudgets.
Careful HRP and forethought by recruiters can minimizerecruitment costs. One cost-saving measure, for instance, is recruiting formultiple job openings simultaneously. The best solution is to use proactivepersonnel practices to reduce employee turnovers, thus, minimizing theneed for recruiting. Evaluating the quality, quantity and cost of recruitmenthelps ensure that it is efficient and cost-effective. Finally, an organization registering growth and expansion will havemore recruiting on hand than the one which finds its fortunes declining.
Q3 Explain the Recruitment process with diagram? Recruitment is the process used by an organization to locate and attract job applicants in order to fill a position.
An effective approach to recruitment can help a company successfully compete for limited human resources. To maximize competitive advantage, a company must choose the recruiting method that produces the best pool of candidates quickly and cost effectively. There are five steps to the process. Many job openings are, in fact, identified in this way.
A major problem with this approach is that it may take the company a long time to fill the opening. For instance, it usually takes six to eight weeks to notify and screen applicants, and a week or more to make a decision regarding a job offer. After the decision is made, the selected candidate must give notice usually about two weeks to his or her previous employer. Thus, the job in question is likely to remain vacant for months, even if the process runs smoothly.
Ideally, organizations should attempt to identify job openings well in advance of an announced resignation. The HRM department should plan for future openings in both the short and long term. The projection of future openings provides organizations with the time needed to plan and implement recruitment strategies so that they do not fall prey to the "must-hire-by-last-week" syndrome. For instance, it may be more prudent to provide overtime opportunities to current workers to complete the needed work.
Other alternatives include job elimination and job redesign i. If the firm chooses to fill the vacancy, it must address two issues: 1 whether to outsource, and 2 in the absence of outsourcing, whether to recruit candidates internally or externally.
To address this question, an organization must define its target population. Two issues arise here: 1 specifying worker requirements and 2 deciding whether to target a certain segment of the applicant population. An organization must identify specific requirements of the job: the duties, reporting relationships, salary range for hiring, and competencies required of a new worker e. Ideally, much of this information will have been gathered during a job analysis and thus be contained in the job description.
If not, the recruiter should gather it from the hiring manager. An organization must also decide at this point whether to target all qualified applicants or to focus its recruitment efforts on certain segments of the qualified applicant population. When recruiting internally, the issue is this: Should the company post the job so that all qualified employees can be considered? Or should the company select certain high-potential employees and groom them for the position?
When recruiting externally, the company must decide whether to inform all potential applicants or target certain types. Companies may reap advantages when they target members of certain groups. Another strategy is to target graduates of specific schools that have exceptionally strong programs in the functional areas of concern. Additionally, some companies target top-performing employees working for other companies.
Recruitment of such individuals poses some unique problems, however; these individuals may be difficult to reach because they are not actively seeking a new job. Moreover, the practice of pirating employees from other firms raises some serious ethical questions. A variety of recruitment methods may be used for communicating vacancies.
A firm can benefit from both low-involvement and high-involvement strategies at this stage of the recruitment process. Low-involvement strategies are things such as corporate sponsorship or advertisements of the company's product or service may influence applicants' positive perceptions of that firm and therefore increase applicant attraction, but do not specifically identify a job opening.
High-involvement recruitment strategies involve things such as detailed recruitment advertisements or employee endorsements, which occur when potential applicants meet with current employees to hear more about their experiences with that company.
Both low-involvement and high-involvement strategies have a positive effect on the number of applicants who apply for jobs with an organization and on the quality of the applicants who apply. When choosing a specific way to notify the target population, different recruitment methods may be used.
Some popular options are internal job postings; newspaper, radio, and television advertisements; trade magazine advertisements; Internet job sites; college campus interviews; and current employee referrals. The choice of which to use depends on the number of positions to be filled, the cost of each recruitment method, the characteristics of the target audience, and economic conditions. The more positions to be filled, the more widely the firm may choose to advertise, perhaps using a newspaper or radio advertisement.
Costs differ for recruitment methods and a firm may be willing to invest more in recruitment when suitable applicants are difficult to find or when poor hiring decisions may be costly.
The characteristics of the target audience influence recruitment method; for example, using an Internet posting would be fruitless if most of the applicant pool is unlikely to have access to a computer.
Poor economic conditions, where unemployment is high, will result in higher numbers of job applicants and possibly a lower average level of quality of applicants. In this situation, to avoid spending an inordinate amount of time weeding through applications, firms must discourage all but the best applicants from applying.
These serve both selection and recruitment purposes. From a selection perspective, they give the firm a chance to further assess the candidates' qualifications. From a recruitment perspective, they provide the candidates with an opportunity to learn more about the employment opportunity. Candidates should be provided with information about the company and the job. Failure to provide a sufficient amount of information could be detrimental to the recruiting process.
For example, it may be interpreted by the candidates as an attempt to evade discussion of unattractive job attributes, or it may be viewed as an indication of the recruiter's disinterest in them.
Without specific information, applicants might accept a job offer without knowing about aspects of it that might affect their long-term job satisfaction, or they may refuse an offer without knowing about some of the job's attractive attributes. He bumped into Kiran, GM Materials, threw the resignation letter on his table, shouted and walked out of the room swiftly. Navin has reason for his sudden outburst. He has been driven to the wall.
The year was when Navin quit the prestigious Sail plant at Mumbai. As a manager material Navin enjoyed the power. He could even place an order for materials worth Rs 25 lakh. The plant is owned by a prestigious business house in India. Obviously perks, designation and reputation of the conglomerate lured Navin away from the public sector. When he joined the pulp making company, little did Navin realize that he needed prior approval to place an order for materials worth Rs 12 lakhs.