Basic Networking Concepts. 1. Introduction. 2. Protocols. 3. -A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in some ways so. In this chapter, you'll begin by relating networks to situations and concepts Lauren has decided to review basic network concepts with her coworkers as. Describe the functionality of LAN, MAN, and WAN networks. • Identify the A network refers to two or more connected computers that . It can also perform basic.

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    Basic Networking Concepts Pdf

    Basic Network Concepts. Knowing how computers Be sure to take a look at Exercise in the file that is found on the CD-ROM. archive of html files, format, and in other formats as may prove . of selected important network applications, or the basics of network. 1. Basic Networking Concepts and Technologies. Bandwidth. When data is sent over a computer network, it is broken up into small chunks called packets.

    Terrestrial microwaves are in the low gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals. Cellular and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies. The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. IEEE Free-space optical communication uses visible or invisible light for communications. In most cases, line-of-sight propagation is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices. It was implemented in real life in Main article: Node networking Apart from any physical transmission media there may be, networks comprise additional basic system building blocks, such as network interface controllers NICs , repeaters , hubs , bridges , switches , routers , modems , and firewalls. Any particular piece of equipment will frequently contain multiple building blocks and perform multiple functions. Network interfaces[ edit ] An ATM network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in.

    05 Communication & Network | Network Topology | Local Area Network

    What is URL? What is WWW? URL refers to Uniform Resource Location, which indicates the resource on which a method is to be applied.

    It refers to World Wide Web. Which allows and supports the internet users to create, link or display the multimedia web pages. What is protocol? It is the set of rules which governs data communication for a network. How is it measured? It refers to the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies of a transmission channel.

    Computer network

    It is measured in bps bits per second. It is the medium used to carry information or data from one point to another. It is the unit of measurement for the information carrying capacity of a communication channel. It is Synonymous with bps bits per second Q. Ans - Local area network LANs are computer network confined to a localized area such as an office or a factory. The internet is world wide network of computer networks, around the Globe. On the other hand Intranet is network , which is privately owned.

    Intranet also uses same set of protocols as Internet. Name two transmission media for networking. Coaxial Cable and Microwave Q. Justified your answer. The Great Brain Organization has setup its new Branch at Srinagar for its office and web based activities.

    On the other hand Intranet is network, which is privately owned.

    What is a world wide web? Ans: The World Wide Web is a set of protocols that allows us to access any document on the net through naming system based on url. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers.

    Switches[ edit ] A network switch is a device that forwards and filters OSI layer 2 datagrams frames between ports based on the destination MAC address in each frame. It can be thought of as a multi-port bridge. If an unknown destination is targeted, the switch broadcasts to all ports but the source.

    Switches normally have numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches. Routers[ edit ] A typical home or small office router showing the ADSL telephone line and Ethernet network cable connections A router is an internetworking device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet or datagram Internet protocol information from layer 3. The routing information is often processed in conjunction with the routing table or forwarding table.

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    A router uses its routing table to determine where to forward packets. A destination in a routing table can include a "null" interface, also known as the "black hole" interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data, i.

    Modems[ edit ] Modems MOdulator-DEModulator are used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, or for wireless. To do this one or more carrier signals are modulated by the digital signal to produce an analog signal that can be tailored to give the required properties for transmission.

    Modems are commonly used for telephone lines, using a digital subscriber line technology. Firewalls[ edit ] A firewall is a network device for controlling network security and access rules. Firewalls are typically configured to reject access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones.

    The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in cyber attacks. Message flows A-B in the presence of a router R , red flows are effective communication paths, black paths are across the actual network links. A communication protocol is a set of rules for exchanging information over a network.

    In a protocol stack also see the OSI model , each protocol leverages the services of the protocol layer below it, until the lowest layer controls the hardware which sends information across the media. The use of protocol layering is today ubiquitous across the field of computer networking.

    This stack is used between the wireless router and the home user's personal computer when the user is surfing the web. Communication protocols have various characteristics. They may be connection-oriented or connectionless , they may use circuit mode or packet switching , and they may use hierarchical addressing or flat addressing. There are many communication protocols, a few of which are described below. The complete IEEE protocol suite provides a diverse set of networking capabilities.

    The protocols have a flat addressing scheme. They operate mostly at levels 1 and 2 of the OSI model. It is standardized by IEEE It offers connection-less as well as connection-oriented services over an inherently unreliable network traversed by data-gram transmission at the Internet protocol IP level. At its core, the protocol suite defines the addressing, identification, and routing specifications for Internet Protocol Version 4 IPv4 and for IPv6, the next generation of the protocol with a much enlarged addressing capability.

    They were originally designed to transport circuit mode communications from a variety of different sources, primarily to support real-time, uncompressed, circuit-switched voice encoded in PCM Pulse-Code Modulation format. It uses asynchronous time-division multiplexing and encodes data into small, fixed-sized cells.

    This differs from other protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite or Ethernet that use variable sized packets or frames. ATM has similarity with both circuit and packet switched networking. This makes it a good choice for a network that must handle both traditional high-throughput data traffic, and real-time, low-latency content such as voice and video.

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